Nanotechnology is a generic platform with potential applications in many sectors. It promises to be a motor of economic growth with inclusive development through innovation related to materials, foods, medicines, and so on. This book identifies the nature and magnitude of the nanotechnology divide between high-income countries and the rest of the world. It also studies the determinants of the evolution and functioning of state policy and technology clusters in developed regions like the USA and the EU in order to identify the strategies that can or cannot be replicated elsewhere. Tracing the trajectories in nanotechnology being carved out by four emerging countries: China, India, Brazil and Mexico, it identifies common as well as country-specific factors that influence the rates of return to public and private investment related to nanotechnology in emerging countries. The book also makes policy recommendations to bridge the nanotechnology divide while promoting economic growth and inclusive development.